The aim for this assignment is to become familiar with the interaction of increasing sea levels on human infrastructure and the associated costs to society. Living in landlocked states, we do not directly experience the challenges posed by the interaction of the oceans with wealth and population centered on our coastlines. However, these are important problems to be aware of because natural disasters in coastal locations cost billions of tax dollars. Further, in some instances, landlocked areas are asked to receive refugees from devastated areas.

The study region for this assignment will be Norfolk, VA, which occurs in the Hampton Roads (or Tidewater) metropolitan area and incorporates the cities of Virginia Beach, Hampton, and Newport News. There are over 1.7 million people currently living in this region. Norfolk is sandwiched between the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay to the north and the Elizabeth River to the west, making it one of the largest ice-free, natural harbors found anywhere on earth. The rich maritime history of Norfolk includes a major shipbuilding industry, a port of entry for international freighters, and the most significant ship-to-rail transfer hub in the USA operated by Norfolk-Southern Railroad. Additionally, the US Navy’s Atlantic fleet is stationed in Norfolk, which is the largest naval base on earth.

First, let’s read a short news article about Norfolk that was published by theWashington Post in 2014 entitled: “In Norfolk, evidence of climate change is in the streets at high tide”. A pdf of the article is attached. Please read carefully and then answer the following questions.

  1. In addition to sea level rise, Norfolk is experiencing significant increases in flooding for a second reason. What is it?
  1. How much have normal tides risen in Norfolk during the last century?
  1. What types of storms exacerbate damages associated with rising seas?
  1. What are some of the options that have been proposed for dealing with inevitable flooding in Norfolk?
  1. Describe some of the expenses that have been incurred from rising sea levels in this area. What Federal agency is helping to defray the costs of improving homes and structures to local residents?

Next, read the 2015 article from The American Prospect entitled “Virginia Sinking, Atlantic Surging’. A pdf of the article attached. Please read carefully and then answer the following questions.

  1. What surprising groups of people are coming together to address the sea level rise?
  1. According to the Pentagon report released in October 2014, climate change is a threat to national security. What does that mean?
  1. How is the Navy planning to respond in the next few years to climate change? What about in the next 50 years?
  1. How much can flood insurance cost homeowners? Does it sound like a good idea to carry flood insurance living in this area?
  1. How are smart phone apps involving citizens in helping to assess sea level rise and flooding?
  1. Despite a sense of urgency among people interviewed for this article, why do you think political leadership is lagging – when the data are clear that flooding will only increase in Norfolk in the future?
  1. Through this assignment, you’re familiar with the causes and outcomes of increasing sea levels. Of the narratives presented here – what risk do you think is most compelling? For example, threats to national security, considerable amounts of federal funding paid out to improve homes and infrastructure, outrageously expensive flood insurance policies, loss of historical areas and meeting places? Tell me what strikes you as vitally important.

4 hours ago

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Barj (hidden)

can you please stop working on the question?

4 hours ago

I did not afford 30$ on this question

4 hours ago

this is too much

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I also did not upload the needed files

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